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Ratio of Nonteachers to Teachers among the Labor Force with Secondary Education or Above, Various Countries
		Some Secondary Education or Above3	Completed Secondary Education or Above*5
India	1961	n.a.	3.4:1
Pakistan	1961	6.0:1	n.a.
Ceylon	1963	6.4:1	3.6:1
Republic of Korea	1960	n.a.	5.4:1
Singapore	1966	11.1:1	9.0:1
Hong Kong	1966	12.4:1 ^	3.9:1
Ghana	1960	11.2:lc	n.a.
Barbados	1960	11.7:1	n.a.
Venezuela	1961	6.4:1	8.9:1
Costa Rica	1964	3.0:1	1.8:1
Nicaragua	1964	5.0:1	2.5:1
El Salvador	1964	3.3:1	23.1:1
Honduras	1964	3.7:1	2.1:1
Guatemala	1964	5.2:1	43.0:1
n.a. = not available.
aThe exact levels of education were: for Pakistan and Ghana, some middle school education; for Ceylon, Standard 8 and above; for Barbados and Venezuela, secondary education or above; for Hong Kong, Senior Middle (Chinese) or Higher Secondary (English) or above; for the Central American countries, some secondary education and above; in Singapore, all persons with some secondary education or more were related to all teachers, the vast majority of whom would have at least some secondary education. (In fact, 57 percent of Singapore's teachers have higher education.)
^The exact levels of education were: for India, matriculation or higher secondary and above; for Ceylon, matriculation and above (completed G.C.E. level in Ceylon); for Korea, 10 years of school or above; for Hong Kong, some postsecondary education or above; for Singapore, all persons with completed secondary education or above were related to teachers with at least some higher education; for Venezuela, higher education; and for the Central American countries, some higher education and above.
cWhen the level of education is raised to some secondary (i.e., above middle school education) or above, the ratio falls to 2.8:1.
Source: Population censuses of India, Pakistan, and Venezuela are for 1961; of Barbados and Ghana for 1960; of Ceylon for 1963; and of Hong Kong for 1966; for Singapore, data are from (26). For the Central American countries, data are from (27).
education in the developing countries are teachers and this includes upper secondary and college level teachers.* Thus, if our hypothetical country were to resemble Pakistan in having only one out of six of its secondary school
*The wide spread in this ratio for countries with available data is somewhat surprising. In interpreting the very low proportion of secondary graduates who go into teaching in El Salvador and Guatemala, it must be borne in mind that the number of such graduates is very small.t instances, be operating in opposite directions on the number of potential additions to the school population. At current fertility and mortality levels, the potential impact of lowered fertility in reducing the increments to the school-age population is substantially greater than that of lowered mortality in raising them, because in most cases death rates are already low while fertility remains high. The extent to which this potential will be realized willio of private expenditure to public expenditure on education varies between countries. There is unfortunately a dearth of intercountry comparative information on private expenditures on migration, in the multilingual character of the society, in the existence of polygamy, and